8 February 1993
                                                        R.F. Garrison

                          CERRO LAS CAMPANAS, CHILE

         I.   Financial Arrangements:

             a)   U of T Staff are expected to use grants to pay their

             b) U of T Students and P.D.F.'s may apply to the Director
         of the David Dunlap Observatory for a Reinhardt Fellowship to
         cover some of the costs of the trip, including air fare, hotel,
         bus, meals, etc.  This should be done about 2 months before
         departure for Chile. (P.D.F.'s are on lower priority for
         funding and at the present time are not being considered.)
         N.B.: All expenses anticipated should be included in the
         fellowship application (e.g. accommodation on the mountain),
         even if you will not be billed directly or immediately for
         some.  Guddi or Florence will then modify the advance according 
	 to the method of payment.  

             c)   Others are expected to find their own funds.

             d) Expenses on Las Campanas are paid by the University of
         Toronto and by NSERC.  There is a per diem charge of $40 (Cdn)
         for accommodation regardless of whether it is in the Carnegie
         lodge, Carnegie apartment in La Serena or in Casa Canadiense.
         Use of the Resident Observer to carry out the program for
         absentee observers is a possible option and the charge at
         present is $200 per usable night.  Note that you will not be
         charged for cloudy nights or when the equipment is not

             e)   Be sure to save all receipts (bus, taxi, and anything
         over a few dollars, except meals and incidentals).  
         II.  Notification:
             a) It is necessary to write to Sr. Urrutia (U. of T.
         lawyer in Chile) about one month (minimum two weeks) in
         advance, with details of arrival as well as customs,
         accommodation, and transportation requirements (hotel, bus,
         commercial plane, etc).  Please send a copy to me
         (Garrison) and I will confirm the message by FAX 2-3 days
         before your arrival.  This should be done even if you do not
         need hotel or bus reservations, or to be met at the airport.
             b)   It is advisable to write also to Carnegie a month in
         advance with details of your arrival on Las Campanas 
         or in La Serena, as well as accommodation requirements in 
         La Serena (if any).  If you let them know when
         you want to travel from La Serena to the mountain, they can
         then schedule accommodation and transportation as conveniently
         as possible.  Please avoid travel on weekends or holidays,
         since we get charged for driver overtime.  We will pass that
         charge for weekend/holiday travel on to you. Personal trips
	 to ESO will also be charged.
         III. Travel to and from Santiago:
             a) Most flights to Chile are overnight.  The exception is
         LADECO, which has a daytime flight from Miami.  There are some
         American Airlines flights during the day.
             b) Canadian Airlines International (formerly CP AIR) had a
         wonderful non-stop flight from Toronto to Santiago.  It no
         longer exists, unfortunately.  They now fly to Sao Paulo,
         Brazil, where you change planes for Santiago.  (Some days it
         has the same flight number, but you change planes anyway).
             c) Canadian Airlines does have one of the least expensive
         fares to Santiago, but you must book as early as possible,
         especially around high seasons (Christmas and northern
         summer), because the lowest fares disappear fast.  
         We have had good luck getting special fares from Hispana Travel.
         The (1993) fare should be about $1300 in the low season and 1400 
         in the high season.
         For comparison, regular "economy" (sic) is about $2800, so be
         sure to book early.  There are intermediate fares and other
         discounts.  The market changes rapidly, but shop around for
             d) The alternatives are numerous.  Nearly all of the
         others pass through Miami and most originate in New York.
         (Lan Chile has a flight from Montreal, but that is no
         advantage; it still goes through Miami.)  It is my experience
         that, if you must use one of these alternatives, the Miami
         airport is better for connections than the New York airport.
         (For example, on the return flight, most of these flights go
         through Miami customs.  If the connection is through New York,
         the plane must be unloaded, with all baggage, and reboarded
         for New York, where a change of airports is required for
         connections to Toronto.  Miami may require a layover, but the
         stress factor is considerably lower!)
             e) Often there are several choices for the same night and
         it is best to choose the one with the fewest stops. American
         and United are the only U.S. airlines serving Chile, but it is
         difficult to get a non-stop to Miami on either of them.  The
         rest are South American or European.  Lan Chile and Ladeco are
         as good as, if not better than, most of the others and they
         have a daily flight, though there are more stops some days
         than others.
             f)   It is a good idea to reconfirm your own flight in
         Santiago. Carnegie can do it, but it requires an expensive
         telephone call and is a nuisance for the secretary.  You must
         confirm at least 3 days before the flight.
         IV.  Santiago:
             a)   Visitors may enter Chile as tourists and as such will
         need only a valid passport.  Vaccinations are NOT required.
         No advance visas are required for North Americans; visa forms
         are given out on the plane. Foreign visitors had better check
         with the travel agent. If any problems arise, let Garrison
         know and he will ask our lawyer or the Embassy to help.  Both
         are very familiar with our operation and will help if they
             b) Visitors with special problems may be met at the
         airport by the lawyer for the U. of T. in Chile, Sr. Antonio
         Urrutia-Aninat, or his assistant.  Otherwise, it is assumed
         that visitors will be able to take care of themselves.  It is
         a good idea to contact Sr. Urrutia upon arrival at the hotel.
         Some people like to register with the Canadian Embassy, just
         so the Embassy knows where to find them in an emergency;
         however, this is not necessary. If you are carrying expensive
         equipment or more than a few computer tapes, it is advisable
         to get customs papers from U. of T. customs department (or
         other institutions for non U. of T. users).   This usually
         takes about a week, but can be done in less if necessary.
             c) Money can be changed at the airport, just beyond the
         exit from customs.  It is recommended that this be done
         because not all hotels have money on hand.  Banks have strange
         hours and often have long lines.  U.S. dollars or travelers
         cheques are recommended, because Canadian exchange is often
         difficult in Chile (though not impossible).
             d)   There is an inexpensive airline bus service from the
         airport to downtown Santiago (Los Heroes subway station) a few
         blocks from Urrutia's office and the Carrera Hotel.  All other
         hotels are a short taxi ride from the Los Heroes terminal.
         Taxi rates from the airport are about half those in Toronto,
         though with experience one can find cheaper ones.
             e) Santiago has a new and comfortable subway (METRO)
         system.  Since, however, it doesn't yet connect with the
         airport and most hotels are a few blocks from the closest
         subway stops, it isn't convenient for those carrying heavy
         luggage.  Otherwise, it is worth using to get around, because
         it is very inexpensive and clean compared with most North
         American systems.
             f) Hotels:  There are, of course, numerous hotels, but
         only a few will be listed here, with some of their
                 1) Hotel Carrera:  This is a large, old (expensive,
         high class) hotel in the heart of downtown and right across
         the street from "La Moneda," the government palace where
         Allende made his last stand during the coup in 1973.  English
         is spoken, money exchange is easy, and it is close to all
         important downtown offices.  It is the choice of most
         journalists, mining engineers, businessmen, etc. For a first
         visit, I might recommend it because the convenience, but it is
         terribly expensive.  Be sure to ask for the CARNEGIE RATE,
         which is much lower than the standard rate (but still high).
                 2) Hotel Pan Americano:  Managed by the Carrera, it is
         less expensive and has less facilities, but it is only 2
         blocks away and is a good alternative to the Carrera.
                 3) Hotel Foresta:  Located across from a beautiful
         park (Santa Lucia), the Foresta is my favorite, but not all
         the clerks speak English and money exchange is difficult, so
         it is not recommended for a first visit unless you feel
         adventurous.  It is relatively inexpensive ($40-60 more or
         less, depending on the exchange rate) has a lot of charm, and
         the people are very friendly. The meals are good.  They now
         take American Express and other cards, which is a help.
                 4) City Hotel:  This is a quiet, clean, relatively
         inexpensive hotel near the House of Justice, Congress, the
         Cathedral and the main Plaza.  The area is interesting and the
         hotel is recommended if others are full.
                 5) Hotel Riviera:  Rick Crowe used to like to stay
         here.  It is close to the Foresta and has many of the same
         characteristics, except that it isn't quite as charming.  It
         is a little less expensive, usually.

		 6) Hotel Monte Carlo:  Just one block south of the
	 Foresta, it is a little less expensive, usually.
             g) Restaurants:  There are, of course, numerous
         restaurants and I won't attempt to list them.  The food in
         Chile is a gourmet treat, in my opinion - especially seafood.
         The wine is the best in the world.
         V. Travel to Las Campanas:
             a) There are scheduled commercial flights most days from
         Santiago to La Serena.  The airline is Ladeco; it can be
         booked through a travel agent from North America.  There are
	 now other lesser airlines serving La Serena.
             b) Several buses leave Santiago for La Serena every
         morning, mid-day, afternoon and night.  The exact hour of
         departure varies from company to company and the travel time
         is 7 +/- 1 hours.  The buses are modern and comfortable, with
         toilets, and are mostly European, like Mercedes and Deutz.
         The bus fare is about $10-20, depending on the exchange rate.
         If you request it, Sr. Urrutia will get tickets in advance and
         have them waiting either at the hotel or at the bus company's
         ticket window at the terminal.  This is advisable near
         holidays and on weekends, but the buses aren't too crowded at
         other times. The companies include: Tas Choapa, Libac, Los
         Corsarios, Los Conquistadores, etc.  The quality of service
         varies, so the recommendation changes from time to time.  The
         current favorite is Libac. Most leave from "Los Heroes," a few
         blocks from the subway station and/or from Urrutia's office.
             c) Travel from La Serena to the mountain is by truck or
         car.  Carnegie will adjust their schedule to fit yours, within
         reason; however, we do not ask for travel to the mountain on
         weekends or holidays, since that requires overtime for the
         driver and Carnegie will charge us extra for that.  Carnegie
         trucks leave for the mountain in the morning, generally, so it
         is best to plan to stay overnight in La Serena.  Please tell
	 Carnegie a few weeks ahead of time, the date you wish to go
	 to and from the mountain.
         VI.  La Serena:
             a) This is the Capital of Coquimbo Province and of the
         IVth Region.  It is the nearest town (of any size) to Las
         Campanas, La Silla, and Tololo, so it is the headquarters for
         all the observatories.  Founded in 1544, it is a lovely old
         colonial town, with a plaza, a lovely old church built in 1675
         (with an interesting grotto in back, where a "miracle"
         sighting of The Virgin supposedly occurred), and lots of
         traditional buildings.
             b)   It is usually possible to stay in one of the Carnegie
         apartment units behind the office building on El Pino (the
         Carnegie Southern Observatory headquarters, so called because
         of the ancient, tall, lone pine on the crest of the hill).
         These should be arranged in advance. Tololo also has several
         "motel" units behind its offices and it is possible to stay
         there, FOR A PRICE. Both observatory offices are on the edge
         of town, about one kilometer walk from most of the restaurants
         and shops.
             c)   There are only a few hotels in La Serena and none is
         outstanding, but they aren't expensive.  The Hotel Francisco
         de Aguirre is the main hotel and is recommended if there is no
         room at the observatory apartments.  The Berlin is reasonable
         and clean.  There are others.
             d)   There are several restaurants, some of which can be
         highly recommended, but the quality often changes, so it is
         best to inquire about the current favorite.  There are some
         good restaurants on the beach, a few kilometers from town.
         Car or taxi is recommended unless you are up to a good (and
         interesting) walk.  Ask Carnegie which of the above are the
         current favorites.  The dining rooms of the hotels are also
         good choices for those unfamiliar with the town.
             e) Trucks to Las Campanas:  Contact Las Campanas
         Observatory offices (telephone listed below) on arrival or the
         next morning early.  There is no regular schedule, but trucks
         usually depart for Las Campanas between 0900 and 1000.  If
         CARSO knows of your arrival (by letter and/or by radio), they
         will usually arrange for a truck to leave at your convenience.
         We have agreed not to expect CARSO to provide transportation
         on holidays or weekends, except in very unusual and
         unavoidable circumstances.  (Their driver must be paid
         overtime for the full day, and that extra charge is passed on
         to us).
             f)   Major Chilean holidays are:
                 1. New Year Day
                 2. Good Friday and Easter weekend
                 3. 1 May
                 4. 21 May
                 5. 15 August
                 6. 11-19 September
                 7. 12 October
                 8. 1 November
                 9. 8 December
                10. Christmas Day
         VII. Useful Addresses and Telephone Numbers:
         a) Sr. Antonio Urrutia-Aninat (and son Jose Antonio)
         Amunategui 277, Oficina 601 Santiago, CHILE
         Telephone 011-56-2-696-4919

         Telex 241152 URRUT CL
         FAX 011-56-2-695-1172
         b) Canadian Embassy,
            11 Ahumada, Piso 10 (piso=floor)
            Santiago, CHILE     Tel. 696-2256
         c) ESO-Santiago Casilla 19001 (casilla=P.O.Box)
            Santiago 19, CHILE   Tel. 228-5006
            ESO-La Serena Casilla 567 La Serena, CHILE    Tel. 21-2882
            La Silla Observatory (mountain)  Tel. 21-3832
         d) Las Campanas Observatory
            Carnegie Institution of Washington,
            Casilla 601 (Casilla=post office box)
            La Serena, CHILE Tel. 011-56-51-224680, 213 032
            (on the mountain: 212413)
         (Located just north of AURA-Tololo headquarters and the
         University of La Serena.  It is on a hill called "Colina El
         Pino" after the  single, tall, pine tree which stands on it
         and which is visible from most of La Serena.  Taxi drivers
         know it by Las Campanas Observatory, el pino; they deal with a
         lot of inept North American Astronomers so don't worry too
         much about being understood.  They are capable of
         overcharging, so ask the fare first and don't pay more than
         $5; it is only about 2 km at most)
         e) AURA Headquarters (Cerro Tololo Offices)
            Casilla 603
            La Serena, CHILE
            Tel. 225415

Further information for travellers to Chile is available from CTIO