Women in Astronomy
Part One last updated March 30 2004
Specific/focussed Websites (in no particular order)
AAS Committee on the Status of Women
This site includes:
- resources- funding, scholarships
- public policy
- links to other WWW resources
- Status newsletter
The History of Women in Astronomy at the Astonomical Society of the Pacific
- 4000 years of women in science
..."we are especially
interested in gathering information about pre-20th century women."
This site includes:
other web sites on women in science (mostly history)
- Women of NASA
Designed to encourage more young women to pursue science-and math-based
fields. Students can chat with women working at the NASA Ames Research Center.
Contributions of 20th century women to physics [incl. astrophysics].
Women in Astronomy: An Introductory Resource Guide by Andrew Fraknoi and Ruth
Freitag [includes a listing by individual name]
- Women in science:
a selection of 16 significant contributors.
(Includes Helen Hogg and Annie Jump Cannon.)
History of Astronomy: Persons Look for individuals here as well as at the long list of other
Distinguished Women of Past and Present : Astronomy Includes all time periods.
- Women-Related Web Sites in Science/ Technology page
"From Joan Korenman of the Department of English at the University of
Maryland comes the Women-Related Web Sites in Science/Technology page. This
great collection of Web resources contains dozens of sites that in some way
provide information on the contributions of women to science. Example sites
include the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics; Douglass Project
for Rutgers Women in Math, Science, and Engineering; Gender Equity in
Education; Girls and Women in Science; Institute for Women in Trades,
Technology, and Science; Stealing the Fire: Women Scientists in Fiction; and
more. Educators and students alike will appreciate this compilation of
important resources, which should only help to spread the knowledge and
acceptance of the important role woman play in science and technological
pursuits. [JAB]" From The NSDL Scout Report for the Physical Sciences, Copyright Internet
Scout Project 1994-2002. http://scout.wisc.edu/
Meetings (see bibliographies for other meetings)
Those interested in the topic of women on astronomy will find
here a list of references that bear mostly on this subject and on that
of women computers in astronomy, though it touches also on the presence
and role of women in associated scientific fields, such as physics. The
mention of some works also reflect my interest in Martha Betz Shapley.
In some cases, only short passages in the works referenced deal with
women in astronomy, but they are usually worth digging up.
The most significant discussions are probably found in the books by
Rossiter, and by Jones and Boyd, in the booklets by Hoffleit, and in the
articles by Mack, and by Lankford and Slavings. Some pointers to
primary sources on the presence of women working in astronomy, such as
the Annual Reports of the Director of Mount Wilson Observatory or the
directories cataloguing the observatories and their astronomers between
1905 and 1930, roughly, are also provided. Lankford and Slavings
refer to a database they have compiled for women in astronomy in
North America, unpublished as far as I know.
I wish to thank, for useful additions and clarifications, Marlene Cummins,
Owen Gingerich, Bernard Lightman, John R. Percy, Christine Ruggere, and
Thomas R. Williams.
Note: "The Dyer's Hand" is the same book as the Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin
autobiography edited by her daughter, Katherine Haramundanis.
Note: "Pickering's Harem" was a prize-winning paper submitted to Owen
Gingerich's "Astronomical Perspectives" class some years ago. Around 1900
someone at Harvard asked a number of people to make an extensive diary of their
work for one week, and this paper compares the diaries of Pickering and,
if my source is correct, Mrs. Fleming. It is found in the Harvard Archives.
(See also separate update.)
Annales du Bureau des Longitudes. Vol. 1 (1877)
Annual Reports of the Director of Mount Wilson Observatory. Carnegie
Institute of Washington. 1906, 1908, 1915, 1924, 1925-1926, 1927-1928,
1928-1929, 1930-1931, 1931-1932, 1932-1933, 1933-1934, 1934-1935,
Abir-Am, Pnina G., and Dorinda Outram, eds. Uneasy Careers and Intimate
Lives. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1987. 365 pages.
Alic, Margaret. Hypatia's Heritage. London: The Women's Press, 1986.
Arp, Halton C., and Andrew Fraknoi. "The 1982 A.S.P. Awards",
Mercury, XI, Number 5 (September/October 1982), pp. 154-155.
Barinaga, Marcia. "Surprises Across the Cultural Divide", Science,
263 (March 11, 1994), pp. 1468-1472.
Bok, Bart J. "Harlow Shapley: 1885-1972", Biographical
Memoirs, XLIX (1978), pp. 241-291.
Brück, Mary T. "Lady Computers at Greenwich in the early 1890s",
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 36 (1995),
Brück, Mary T. "Alice Everett and Annie Russell Maunder torch bearing
women astronomers", The Irish Astronomical Journal, 21
(March-September 1994), pp. 281-290.
Burbidge, Margaret. "Watcher of the Skies", Annual Reviews in
Astronomy and Astrophysics, 32, pp. 1-36.
Cole, Jonathan R. Fair Science. New York: The Free Press, 1979.
Cole, Jonathan R. American Scientist, 69 (1981), p. 385.
Dadaev, Aleksandr Nikolaevich. Pulkovo Observatory: An Essay on its
History and Scientific Activity. Washington: National Technical
Information Service, NASA TM-75083, 1978. 239 pages.
Dobson, Andrea K., and Katherine Bracher. "A Historical Introduction to
Women in Astronomy", Mercury, XXI, Number 1 (January/February
1992), pp. 4-15.
Dresselhaus, Mildred S., Judy R. Franz, and Bunny C. Clark. "Interventions to
Increase the Participation of Women in Physics", Science, 263
(March 11, 1994), pp. 1392-1393.
Elliott, Clark A., and Margaret W. Rossiter. Science at Harvard University
University. Bethlehem, Penn.: Lehigh University Press, 1992.
Gingerich, Owen. "Through Rugged Ways to the Galaxies", Journal for
the History of Astronomy, 21 (1990), pp. 77-8.
Goodman, Lawrence. Pickering's Harem. 1989. 17 pages.
Haramundanis, Katherine, ed. Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin: An autobiography
and other recollections. 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
1996. 296 pages.
Haraway, Donna J. "A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and
Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century", Simians, Cyborgs, and
Women: The Reinvention of Nature (New York: Routledge, 1991),
Hoffleit, Dorrit. Women in the History of Variable Star Astronomy.
Cambridge: The American Association of Variable Star Observers, 1993. 62
pages. (This can be viewed, ordered or downloaded from
the AAVSO website.)
Hoffleit, Dorrit. The Education of American Women Astronomers Before
1960. Cambridge, Mass.: American Association of Variable Star
Hogg, Helen Sawyer. Out of Old Books. Toronto: David Dunlap
Observatory, 1974. 346 pages.
Hoyt, William Graves. Lowell and Mars. Tucson: The University of
Arizona Press, 1976. 376 pages.
Jones, Bessie Zaban, and Lyle Gifford Boyd. The Harvard College
Observatory. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press,
1971. 495 pages.
Kass-Simon, G., and Patricia Farnes, eds. Women of Science.
Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1990. 398 pages.
Kevles, Daniel J. The Physicists. New York: Vintage Books,
1979. 491 pages.
Kistiakowski, V. Physics Today, 33, Number 2 (1980), p. 32.
Kohlstedt, Sally Gregory. "Maria Mitchell and the Advancement of Women in
Science", Uneasy Careers and Intimate Lives. Pnina G. Abir-Am and
Dorinda Outram, eds. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1987, pp.
Kopal, Zdenek. "In Memoriam: Harlow Shapley (2 November 1885 --- 20
October 1972", Astrophysics and Space Science, 18, Number 2
(1972), pp. 259-266.
Kopal, Zdenek. "In Memoriam: Martha Betz Shapley (1890-1981)",
Astrophysics and Space Science, 79, Number 2 (October 1981),
Kopal, Zdenek. Language of the Stars. Dordrecht: D. Reidel
Publishing Company, 1979. 280 pages.
Kopal, Zdenek. Of Stars and Men. Bristol and Boston: Adam Hilger,
1986. 486 pages.
Lankford, John, and Rickey L. Slavings. "Gender and Science: Women in
American Astronomy, 1859-1940", Physics Today (March 1990), pp. 58-65.
Lankford, John, and Ricky L. Slavings. "The Industrialization of American
Astronomy, 1880-1940", Physics Today (1996).
Levitan, Sar A., and Joyce K. Zickler. Swords into Plowshares: Our GI
Bill. Salt Lake City: Olympus Publishing Company, 1973. 103 pages.
Lightman, Bernard. "Constructing Victorian Heavens: Agnes Clerke and
Gendered Astronomy", in Natural Eloquence: Women Reinscribe
Science, Barbara T. Gates and Ann B. Shteir, eds. Madison: University
of Wisconsin Press, 1997. (Forthcoming this spring)
Liller, M. H. Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 12
(1980), p. 624.
Lowell, A. Lawrence. Biography of Percival Lowell. New York: The
MacMillan Company, 1935. 212 pages.
Mack, Pamela E. "Strategies and Compromises: Women in Astronomy at Harvard
College Observatory, 1870-1920", The Journal for the History of
Astronomy, 21 (1990), pp. 65-75.
Maffeo, Sabino. In the Service of Nine Popes. Vatican: Specola
Vaticana, and Pontificia Accademia delle Scienze, 1991. 241 pages.
Meadows, A.J. Greenwich Observatory. Volume 2: Recent History
(1936-1975). London: Taylor & Francis, 1975. 135 pages.
Merchant, Carolyn. The Death of Nature: Women, Ecology, and the
Scientific Revolution. San Francisco: Harper & Row,
Publishers, 1980. 347 pages.
Nelson, Debra L. "Daughters of the Sky", Griffith Observer,
47, Number 3 (March 1983), pp. 2-10.
Olson, Keith W. The G.I. Bill, the Veterans, and the Colleges.
Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky, 1974. 139 pages.
Percy, John R. "Women in Astronomy", Journal of the Royal Astronomical
Society of Canada, 75 (1981), pp. 210-213.
Philip, A. G. Davis, and David H. DeVorkin, eds. In Memory of Henry
Norris Russell. Albany: Dudley Observatory, 1977. 181 pages.
Platt, Frederick. "Running After Rainbows: Annie Jump Cannon", Griffith
Observer, 47, Number 7 (July 1983), pp. 2-14.
Renn, Jürgen, and Robert Schulmann, eds. Albert Einstein/Mileva
Mariec --- The Love Letters. Princeton: Princeton University Press,
1992. 107 pages.
Rossiter, Margaret W. "The -M-a-t-t-h-e-w- Matilda Effect in
Science", Social Studies of Science, 23
(1993), pp. 325-341.
Rossiter, Margaret W. "Sexual Segregation in the Sciences: Some Data and a
Model", Sex and Scientific Inquiry. Sandra Harding and Jean F. O'Barr,
eds. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1987, pp. 35-40.
Rossiter, Margaret W. Women Scientists in America: Struggles and
Strategies to 1940. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University
Press, 1982. 439 pages.
Rothenberg, Marc. "Organization and Control: Professionals and
Amateurs in American Astronomy, 1899-1918", 11 (1981), pp. 305-325.
Rubin, Vera. Bright Galaxies, Dark Matters. American Institute of
Schiebinger, Londa. The Mind Has No Sex?. Cambridge: Harvard
University Press, 1989. 355 pages.
Shapley, Harlow S. Through Rugged Ways to the Stars. New York:
Stephens, Sally. "Vera Rubin: An Unconventional Career", Mercury,
XXI, Number 1 (January/February 1992), pp. 38-45.
Stolte-Heiskanen, Veronica, ed. Women in Science. Oxford: Berg
Publishers Limited, 1991. 256 pages. (Select Bibliography: pp. 237-248)
Stroobant, P., J. Delvosal, H. Philippot, E. Delporte, and E. Merlin. Les
Observatoires astronomiques et les astronomes. Bruxelles: Hayez,
Imprimeur de l'Observatoire royal de Belgique, 1907. 316 pages.
Stroobant, P., J. Delvosal, E. Delporte, F. Moreau, and H. L. Vanderlinden.
Les Observatoires astronomiques et les astronomes. Tournai, Paris:
Etablissements Casterman, S.A., 1931. 314 pages.
Tenn, Joseph S. "Jacobus Cornelius Kapteyn: The Tenth Bruce Medalist",
Mercury, XX, Number 5 (September/October 1991), pp.
Urry, C. Megan, Laura Danly, Lisa E. Sherbert, and Shireen Gonzaga, eds.
Women at Work: A Meeting on the Status of Women in Astronomy.
Baltimore: The Space Telescope Science Institute, 1992. 207 pages.
Zuckerman, Harriet, Jonathan R. Cole, and John T. Bruer, eds. The Outer
Circle. New York and London: W.W. Norton & Company, 1991. 351 pages.
The following items are ones that I happen to have come across- they are not
the result of any systematic searching. If you would like to alert me to
any additions please do so.
Last update of Part Three: February 16 2004
AAS Committee on the Status of Women : weekly issues
Electronic- to subscribe send email to firstname.lastname@example.org
Archive from (December 1991) at: ftp://ftp.aas.org/committees/cswa/bulletin.board/
Status: newsletter of the AAS Committee on the Status of Women
Print version is available only to AAS members, however current and back issues
of Status can be
downloaded from the CSWA website.
Ackmann, Martha. The Mercury 13 : The Untold Story of Thirteen American Women and the Dream of Space Flight.
Random House, 2003.
Albers, Henry. Maria Mitchell: A Life in Journals and Letters.
Clinton Corners, N.Y. : College Avenue Press, 2001.
Appenzeller, I., ed. Remembering Edith Alice Muller. Dordrecht: Kluwer,
1997. 147 pp.
E=mc2. A biography of the world's most famous equation.
Doubleday Canada, 2000. (Includes a description of Emilie de Breteuil's life and work.
Brück, Mary. Agnes Mary Clerke and the rise of astrophysics.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Corliss, Julie. Space for women: perspectives on careers in science.
Cambridge, MA : Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 1994
Freni, Pamela S. Space for Women: A History of Women With the Right Stuff.
Seven Locks Press, April 2002.
Gormley, Beatrice. Maria Mitchell : the soul of an astronomer.
Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans, c1995
Greenstein, G. Portraits of discovery: profiles in scientific genius.
John Wiley & Sons., 1998.
Hoffleit, Dorrit. Misfortunes as blessings in disguise : the story of
my life. Cambridge, MA: American Association of Variable Star
Observers (AAVSO), 2002.
Holtzmann Kevles, Bettyann. Almost heaven: the story of women in space.
Basics Books, 2003.
Hopping, Lorraine Jean. Sally Ride: Space Pioneer.
McGraw-Hill/Contemporary Books, 2000.
Hoskin, Michael. The Herschel partnership, as viewed by Caroline.
Cambridge, UK : Science History Publications, 2003. "...the first salaried female
in the history of astronomy". (from the introduction)
Hoskin, Michael. ed. Caroline Herschel's autobiographies.
Cambridge, UK : Science History Publications, 2003.
Hurwitz, Sue. Sally Ride : Shooting for the Stars. (Great Lives Series)
Ballantine Books, 1989.
Mack, Pamela Etter. Women in Astronomy in the United
States 1875-1920. BA thesis, Harvard University, 1977
McKenna-Lawlor, S. Whatever shines should be observed : quicquid nited
notandum. Blackrock, Dublin : Samton Ltd. 1998. 136pp. (Portraits of five Irish
women astronomers of the 19th century; Mary, Countess of Rose, The Hon. Mrs.
Mary Ward, Agnes Mary Clerke, Ellen Mary Clerke, and Lady Margaret Lindsay
McMillan, Dorothy. ed. Queen of science, personal recollections of Mary Somerville
Edinburgh: Canongate Classics, 2001. xlii + 434pp. [Ms. Somerville was more of a general
scientist than an astronomer, but she did translate LaPlace's Mecanique Celeste]
Nolen, Stephanie. Promised the Moon: The Untold Story of the First Women in the Space Race.
Penguin Books Canada, October 2002.
Philip, A.G. Davis, W.F. van Altena and A.R. Upgren, eds.
Anni Mirabiles: a symposium celebrating the 90th birthday of Dorrit Hoffleit.
Schenectady, N.Y. : L. Davis Press, 1999. 173 pp. (Includes an extensive bibliography of
Philip, A.G. Davis and Rebecca A. Koopman eds.
The starry universe: the Cecelia Payne-Gaposchkin centenary
Schenectady, N.Y. : L. Davis Press, 2001. 185 pp. (Proceedings of the conference.)
Ride, Sally. To Space and Back. HarperTrophy (Reprint edition), 1989)
Webb, Michael. Helen Sawyer Hogg: a lifetime of stargazing.
Toronto : Copp Clark Pitman, 1991.
Woodmansee, Laura S. Women Astronauts. (Apogee Books Space Series)
Apogee Books (Book and CD-ROM edition), 2002.
Woodmansee, Laura S. Women of Space: Cool Careers on the Final Frontier.
Apogee Books (Book and CD-ROM edition), 2003.
Brück, Mary T. "Women in astronomy, 1780-1940", Astronomy and
Geophysics, 39 (December 1998), pp.6.4-6.5.
Chapman, Allan. "Now ladies as well as gentlemen", in
The Victorian amateur astronomer: independent astronomical research in
Britain 1820-1920. Chichester ; Toronto : John Wiley &
de la Lande, Jérôme Bibliographie Astronomique; avec
l'Histoire de l'Astronomie depuis 1781 jusqu'à 1802_, pp. 585, 600, 687
& 704. [Talks about
Madame du Pierry (Marie-Louise-Élisabeth-Félicité Pourat de la Madeleine)
b. 1746, first women professor of Astronomy in Paris.]
Evans, Nancy Remage. "Physics individual profile- Nancy Remage Evans",
Physics in Canada, 52 (March/April 1996) p.115
Kidwell, Peggy Aldrich. "Three women of American astronomy",
American Scientist, 78 (May-June 1990), pp.244-251.
[Maria Mitchell, Annie Jump Cannon, Cecelia Payne-Gaposchkin]
Morton, Donald. "ANNE BARBARA UNDERHILL (1920-2003)",
Cassiopeia, 118 (September Equinox 2003).
Orchiston, W., and Slee, B. "The Australasian discovery of solar radio
emission," Anglo-Australian Observatory Newsletter, 101 (2002) [about Elizabeth Alexander's work].
Orchiston, W. "Radio waves from the Sun: the New Zealand connection,"
in Astronomical Handbook for
1995, edited by W. Orchiston, R. Dodd, and R. Hall. Wellington, Carter Observatory (The National Observatory of New
Zealand). Pp. 65-69. [a more popular level account of Elizabeth Alexander's work].
Prentice, Alison. "The early history of women in university physics: a
Toronto case study," Physics in Canada, 52 (March/April 1996)
[Mostly about women in physics at University of Toronto.]
Scnell, Annaliese. "First chances for women," in
100 years of observational astronomy and astrophysics : homage to Miklos Konkoly Thege 1842-1916,
edited by Christiaan Sterken and John B. Hearnshaw. Brussels : C.Sterken, (2002?), pp.211-227.
[Profiles several women and includes a bibliography.]
"Summary of the RAS Specialist Discussion Meeting on Women in Astronomy: an
historical perspective, 1780-1940", The Observatory, 118
(October 1998), pp.270-273.
Tenn, Joseph S. "The Hugginses, the Drapers, and the Rise of
Astrophysics," Griffith Observer, 50, 10, 2 (1986).
This list originally appeared in AAS Committee on the Status of Women
weekly issues of 10/13/99 and is copied here with permission from Dr. Rubin.
There is now a vast collection of books which include
scholarly discussions and biographies of women in astronomy.
If you expand to Women in Science, the list multiplies. MUST
reading are two books by Margaret Rossiter, Women Scientists
in America: Struggles and Strategies to 1940 (the most
informative), and Before Affirmative Action 1940-1972. Both
Johns Hopkins Press, 1982 and 1995. Every women scientist
should read at least the first, to learn why we are where we
are. This is just a start. There are numerous colleges with
Center for the Education of Women (e.g. U Mich.), which
publish booklets, etc. I thank the DTM librarian, Shaun
Hardy for putting together a reading list some years ago,
for an exhibit on Women in Astronomy which we assembled in
the DTM library; some entries come from that list.
The following is a very personal list of books in my office
or home, which I cherish. Many can be found in used book
stores; some are now rare.
Hypatia, or New Foes with an Old Face (Novel about Hypatia,
the "first woman astronomer" 400AD and a classic), Charles
Kingsley, A.L. Burt, New York; no date, but VERY old. My
book has pages which are so brown that it is difficult to
Memoir and Correspondence of Caroline Herschel, Mary
Cornwallis Herschel, Appleton, New York, 1876. Very nice,
probably hard to find. CH collected works are included at
end of the collected works of William Herschel. Michael
Hoskin's book, William Herschel, WW Norton, 1963, also
includes Caroline. Also The Herschel Chronicle: The Life
Story of Sir William Herschel and His Sister Caroline
Herschel, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1933. Also Caroline
Herschel's Contributions to Astronomy, Marilyn Bailey
Ogilvie, Annals of Science 32, 1975, 149-161
Maria Mitchell, by Phebe Mitchell Kendall (Sister), Lee and
Shepard, Boston 1896. About the best there is on MM, but
bland. Her sister burned her letters.
Maria Mitchell, First Lady of American Astronomy, Helen L.
Morgan, Westminster Press, Philadelphia 1977. A kiddie
book, but factual.
Sweeper of the Sky (Novel about MM), Helen Wright,
The Prolific Pen of Agnes Clerke, Kenneth Weitzenhoffer, Sky
and Telescope 70, 1985, 211-212. Agnes Clerke wrote
wonderful fairly technical books on the history of astronomy
at the start of this century: Agnes Mary Clerke, Problems in
Astrophysics, London: A.& C. Black, 1903; The System of the
Stars, London: Adam and Charles Black, 1905; A Popular
History of Astronomy during the Nineteenth Century, London:
Adam and Charles Black, 1908
Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin: An Autobiography and other
Recollections, Haramundanis, Katherine, ed. Cambridge UNive.
Press, 1984. Wonderful stories by a brilliant writer.
Interesting for her view of her life.
Woman in Science, H. J. Mozans, (1913), reprint 1974 MIT
Press, introduction by Mildred Dresselhaus. Mozans, a
priest, wrote the book under a pseudonym while on sabbatical
from Notre Dame, believing that there had been women in
science, but that their story had never been told. One
chaprter is on women in Astronomy. Until the first Rossiter
book, this is where we went to learn.
The Harvard College Observatory: The First Four
Directorships 1839-1919, Bessie Zaban Jones and Lyle Gifford
Boyd. Chapter XI: A Field for Women describes the women
hired by Pickering for 1/4th the salary of the men.
Women Astronomers, Deborah Jean Warner, Natural History 88
(May 1979), 12-26. Much of what I know about women in
astronomy I learned from Debbie Warner. This is a wonderful
And more, with no comments:
Maria Mitchell: Nineteenth Century Astronomer, Astronomy
Quarterly 5, No. 19, 1986, 133-150
Dorothea Klumpke Roberts: A Forgotten Astronomer, Mercury
10, 1981, 139-140
Women Astronomers, 400 AD to 1750, Herman S. Davis, Popular
Astronomy 6, 1898, 128-138 and 211-228
Three Women of American Astronomy (Mitchell, Cannon, Payne-
Gaposchkin), Peggy Aldrich Kidwell, American Scientist 78,
Women Astronomers in Britain 1780-1930, Peggy Aldrich
Kidwell, ISIS 75, 1984, 534-546
Gender and Science: Women in American Astronomy 1859-1940,
John Lankford and Rickey L. Slavings, Physics Today 43,
March 1990, 58-65
Early Daughters of Urania, P.V. Rizzo, Sky and Telescope 14,
Edward Hill, My Daughter Beatrice: A Personal Memoir of Dr.
Beatrice Tinsley, Astronomer, New York:APS, 1986
Women in Astronomy, STScI workshop, September 1992, ed. C.
Megan Urry, Laura Danly, Lisa E. Sherbert and Shireen
Gonzaga. Good articles, statistics, and references.
Origins: The Lives and Worlds of Modern Cosmologists, Alan
Lightman and Roberta Brawer, Harvard University Press,
(approx. 1990; the book is at home). Includes interviews
with Vera Rubin (p 285-305), Sandra Faber (324-340), and
Margaret Geller (359-377)
The Outer Circle: Women in the Scientific Community, Harriet
Zuckerman, Jonathan R. Cole, and John T. Bruer, (approx
1995), interview with Andrea Dupree p 94-126, plus other
brief women astronomer mention.
In AIP Masters of Modern Physics series:
Visit to a Small Universe, Virginia Trimble, 1992
Bright Galaxies, Dark Matters, Vera Rubin, 1997
These are collections of mostly non-technical writings, some
about women in Astronomy. VT includes Beartice M. Tinsley,
p 285-293; VR includes E. Margaret Burbidge, 190-192. Our
views of being a woman in science are dissimilar.
Women's Work: For women in science, a fair shake is still
elusive, Vera Rubin, in Science 86, 1986, 58-65. This
account of women in astronomy ends with the following: "A
cable that was sent to me in 1978 is a testament to [women
astronomers]. "Dear Madame" it reads, "You might appreciate
hearing that four women astronomers are observing on Cerro
Tololo tonight, on the four largest telescopes! We are M. H.
Ulrich, M. T. Ruiz, P. Lugger, and L. Schweizer." I hope the
sky was very clear that night."
[Dr. Rubin also mentioned some websites which are already included elsewhere.]