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Women in Astronomy

Part One: Women in Astronomy Web Resources:
General Sites, Focussed Sites, Meetings

Part One last updated March 30 2004

General Websites Specific/focussed Websites (in no particular order)
Meetings (see bibliographies for other meetings)

Part Two: Women in Astronomy: a bibliography by Jean Louis Trudel

February 1997

Those interested in the topic of women on astronomy will find here a list of references that bear mostly on this subject and on that of women computers in astronomy, though it touches also on the presence and role of women in associated scientific fields, such as physics. The mention of some works also reflect my interest in Martha Betz Shapley. In some cases, only short passages in the works referenced deal with women in astronomy, but they are usually worth digging up.

The most significant discussions are probably found in the books by Rossiter, and by Jones and Boyd, in the booklets by Hoffleit, and in the articles by Mack, and by Lankford and Slavings. Some pointers to primary sources on the presence of women working in astronomy, such as the Annual Reports of the Director of Mount Wilson Observatory or the directories cataloguing the observatories and their astronomers between 1905 and 1930, roughly, are also provided. Lankford and Slavings refer to a database they have compiled for women in astronomy in North America, unpublished as far as I know.

I wish to thank, for useful additions and clarifications, Marlene Cummins, Owen Gingerich, Bernard Lightman, John R. Percy, Christine Ruggere, and Thomas R. Williams.

Note: "The Dyer's Hand" is the same book as the Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin autobiography edited by her daughter, Katherine Haramundanis.

Note: "Pickering's Harem" was a prize-winning paper submitted to Owen Gingerich's "Astronomical Perspectives" class some years ago. Around 1900 someone at Harvard asked a number of people to make an extensive diary of their work for one week, and this paper compares the diaries of Pickering and, if my source is correct, Mrs. Fleming. It is found in the Harvard Archives.


(See also separate update.)

Annales du Bureau des Longitudes. Vol. 1 (1877)

Annual Reports of the Director of Mount Wilson Observatory. Carnegie Institute of Washington. 1906, 1908, 1915, 1924, 1925-1926, 1927-1928, 1928-1929, 1930-1931, 1931-1932, 1932-1933, 1933-1934, 1934-1935, 1936-1937, 1937-1938.

Abir-Am, Pnina G., and Dorinda Outram, eds. Uneasy Careers and Intimate Lives. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1987. 365 pages.

Alic, Margaret. Hypatia's Heritage. London: The Women's Press, 1986. 230 pages.

Arp, Halton C., and Andrew Fraknoi. "The 1982 A.S.P. Awards", Mercury, XI, Number 5 (September/October 1982), pp. 154-155.

Barinaga, Marcia. "Surprises Across the Cultural Divide", Science, 263 (March 11, 1994), pp. 1468-1472.

Bok, Bart J. "Harlow Shapley: 1885-1972", Biographical Memoirs, XLIX (1978), pp. 241-291.

Brück, Mary T. "Lady Computers at Greenwich in the early 1890s", Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 36 (1995), pp. 83-95.

Brück, Mary T. "Alice Everett and Annie Russell Maunder torch bearing women astronomers", The Irish Astronomical Journal, 21 (March-September 1994), pp. 281-290.

Burbidge, Margaret. "Watcher of the Skies", Annual Reviews in Astronomy and Astrophysics, 32, pp. 1-36.

Cole, Jonathan R. Fair Science. New York: The Free Press, 1979. 336 pages.

Cole, Jonathan R. American Scientist, 69 (1981), p. 385.

Dadaev, Aleksandr Nikolaevich. Pulkovo Observatory: An Essay on its History and Scientific Activity. Washington: National Technical Information Service, NASA TM-75083, 1978. 239 pages.

Dobson, Andrea K., and Katherine Bracher. "A Historical Introduction to Women in Astronomy", Mercury, XXI, Number 1 (January/February 1992), pp. 4-15.

Dresselhaus, Mildred S., Judy R. Franz, and Bunny C. Clark. "Interventions to Increase the Participation of Women in Physics", Science, 263 (March 11, 1994), pp. 1392-1393.

Elliott, Clark A., and Margaret W. Rossiter. Science at Harvard University University. Bethlehem, Penn.: Lehigh University Press, 1992.

Gingerich, Owen. "Through Rugged Ways to the Galaxies", Journal for the History of Astronomy, 21 (1990), pp. 77-8.

Goodman, Lawrence. Pickering's Harem. 1989. 17 pages.

Haramundanis, Katherine, ed. Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin: An autobiography and other recollections. 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 296 pages.

Haraway, Donna J. "A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century", Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature (New York: Routledge, 1991), pp. 149-181.

Hoffleit, Dorrit. Women in the History of Variable Star Astronomy. Cambridge: The American Association of Variable Star Observers, 1993. 62 pages. (This can be viewed, ordered or downloaded from the AAVSO website.)

Hoffleit, Dorrit. The Education of American Women Astronomers Before 1960. Cambridge, Mass.: American Association of Variable Star Observers, 1994.

Hogg, Helen Sawyer. Out of Old Books. Toronto: David Dunlap Observatory, 1974. 346 pages.

Hoyt, William Graves. Lowell and Mars. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 1976. 376 pages.

Jones, Bessie Zaban, and Lyle Gifford Boyd. The Harvard College Observatory. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1971. 495 pages.

Kass-Simon, G., and Patricia Farnes, eds. Women of Science. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1990. 398 pages.

Kevles, Daniel J. The Physicists. New York: Vintage Books, 1979. 491 pages.

Kistiakowski, V. Physics Today, 33, Number 2 (1980), p. 32.

Kohlstedt, Sally Gregory. "Maria Mitchell and the Advancement of Women in Science", Uneasy Careers and Intimate Lives. Pnina G. Abir-Am and Dorinda Outram, eds. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1987, pp. 129-146.

Kopal, Zdenek. "In Memoriam: Harlow Shapley (2 November 1885 --- 20 October 1972", Astrophysics and Space Science, 18, Number 2 (1972), pp. 259-266.

Kopal, Zdenek. "In Memoriam: Martha Betz Shapley (1890-1981)", Astrophysics and Space Science, 79, Number 2 (October 1981), pp. 261-264.

Kopal, Zdenek. Language of the Stars. Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1979. 280 pages.

Kopal, Zdenek. Of Stars and Men. Bristol and Boston: Adam Hilger, 1986. 486 pages.

Lankford, John, and Rickey L. Slavings. "Gender and Science: Women in American Astronomy, 1859-1940", Physics Today (March 1990), pp. 58-65.

Lankford, John, and Ricky L. Slavings. "The Industrialization of American Astronomy, 1880-1940", Physics Today (1996).

Levitan, Sar A., and Joyce K. Zickler. Swords into Plowshares: Our GI Bill. Salt Lake City: Olympus Publishing Company, 1973. 103 pages.

Lightman, Bernard. "Constructing Victorian Heavens: Agnes Clerke and Gendered Astronomy", in Natural Eloquence: Women Reinscribe Science, Barbara T. Gates and Ann B. Shteir, eds. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1997. (Forthcoming this spring)

Liller, M. H. Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 12 (1980), p. 624.

Lowell, A. Lawrence. Biography of Percival Lowell. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1935. 212 pages.

Mack, Pamela E. "Strategies and Compromises: Women in Astronomy at Harvard College Observatory, 1870-1920", The Journal for the History of Astronomy, 21 (1990), pp. 65-75.

Maffeo, Sabino. In the Service of Nine Popes. Vatican: Specola Vaticana, and Pontificia Accademia delle Scienze, 1991. 241 pages.

Meadows, A.J. Greenwich Observatory. Volume 2: Recent History (1936-1975). London: Taylor & Francis, 1975. 135 pages.

Merchant, Carolyn. The Death of Nature: Women, Ecology, and the Scientific Revolution. San Francisco: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1980. 347 pages.

Nelson, Debra L. "Daughters of the Sky", Griffith Observer, 47, Number 3 (March 1983), pp. 2-10.

Olson, Keith W. The G.I. Bill, the Veterans, and the Colleges. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky, 1974. 139 pages.

Percy, John R. "Women in Astronomy", Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, 75 (1981), pp. 210-213.

Philip, A. G. Davis, and David H. DeVorkin, eds. In Memory of Henry Norris Russell. Albany: Dudley Observatory, 1977. 181 pages.

Platt, Frederick. "Running After Rainbows: Annie Jump Cannon", Griffith Observer, 47, Number 7 (July 1983), pp. 2-14.

Renn, Jürgen, and Robert Schulmann, eds. Albert Einstein/Mileva Mariec --- The Love Letters. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992. 107 pages.

Rossiter, Margaret W. "The -M-a-t-t-h-e-w- Matilda Effect in Science", Social Studies of Science, 23 (1993), pp. 325-341.

Rossiter, Margaret W. "Sexual Segregation in the Sciences: Some Data and a Model", Sex and Scientific Inquiry. Sandra Harding and Jean F. O'Barr, eds. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1987, pp. 35-40.

Rossiter, Margaret W. Women Scientists in America: Struggles and Strategies to 1940. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982. 439 pages.

Rothenberg, Marc. "Organization and Control: Professionals and Amateurs in American Astronomy, 1899-1918", 11 (1981), pp. 305-325.

Rubin, Vera. Bright Galaxies, Dark Matters. American Institute of Physics, 1996.

Schiebinger, Londa. The Mind Has No Sex?. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989. 355 pages.

Shapley, Harlow S. Through Rugged Ways to the Stars. New York: Scribner's, 1969.

Stephens, Sally. "Vera Rubin: An Unconventional Career", Mercury, XXI, Number 1 (January/February 1992), pp. 38-45.

Stolte-Heiskanen, Veronica, ed. Women in Science. Oxford: Berg Publishers Limited, 1991. 256 pages. (Select Bibliography: pp. 237-248)

Stroobant, P., J. Delvosal, H. Philippot, E. Delporte, and E. Merlin. Les Observatoires astronomiques et les astronomes. Bruxelles: Hayez, Imprimeur de l'Observatoire royal de Belgique, 1907. 316 pages.

Stroobant, P., J. Delvosal, E. Delporte, F. Moreau, and H. L. Vanderlinden. Les Observatoires astronomiques et les astronomes. Tournai, Paris: Etablissements Casterman, S.A., 1931. 314 pages.

Tenn, Joseph S. "Jacobus Cornelius Kapteyn: The Tenth Bruce Medalist", Mercury, XX, Number 5 (September/October 1991), pp. 145-147, 159.

Urry, C. Megan, Laura Danly, Lisa E. Sherbert, and Shireen Gonzaga, eds. Women at Work: A Meeting on the Status of Women in Astronomy. Baltimore: The Space Telescope Science Institute, 1992. 207 pages.

Zuckerman, Harriet, Jonathan R. Cole, and John T. Bruer, eds. The Outer Circle. New York and London: W.W. Norton & Company, 1991. 351 pages.

Part Three: Casual Update by Marlene Cummins,
Astronomy and Astrophysics Library, University of Toronto

The following items are ones that I happen to have come across- they are not the result of any systematic searching. If you would like to alert me to any additions please do so. library@astro.utoronto.ca

Last update of Part Three: February 16 2004


AAS Committee on the Status of Women : weekly issues

    Electronic- to subscribe send email to aaswomen@wellesley.edu
    Archive from (December 1991) at: ftp://ftp.aas.org/committees/cswa/bulletin.board/

Status: newsletter of the AAS Committee on the Status of Women

    Print version is available only to AAS members, however current and back issues of Status can be downloaded from the CSWA website.


Ackmann, Martha. The Mercury 13 : The Untold Story of Thirteen American Women and the Dream of Space Flight. Random House, 2003.

Albers, Henry. Maria Mitchell: A Life in Journals and Letters. Clinton Corners, N.Y. : College Avenue Press, 2001.

Appenzeller, I., ed. Remembering Edith Alice Muller. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1997. 147 pp.

Bodanis, David. E=mc2. A biography of the world's most famous equation. Doubleday Canada, 2000. (Includes a description of Emilie de Breteuil's life and work.

Brück, Mary. Agnes Mary Clerke and the rise of astrophysics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Corliss, Julie. Space for women: perspectives on careers in science. Cambridge, MA : Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 1994

Freni, Pamela S. Space for Women: A History of Women With the Right Stuff. Seven Locks Press, April 2002.

Gormley, Beatrice. Maria Mitchell : the soul of an astronomer. Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans, c1995

Greenstein, G. Portraits of discovery: profiles in scientific genius. John Wiley & Sons., 1998.

Hoffleit, Dorrit. Misfortunes as blessings in disguise : the story of my life. Cambridge, MA: American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO), 2002.

Holtzmann Kevles, Bettyann. Almost heaven: the story of women in space. Basics Books, 2003.

Hopping, Lorraine Jean. Sally Ride: Space Pioneer. McGraw-Hill/Contemporary Books, 2000.

Hoskin, Michael. The Herschel partnership, as viewed by Caroline. Cambridge, UK : Science History Publications, 2003. "...the first salaried female in the history of astronomy". (from the introduction)

Hoskin, Michael. ed. Caroline Herschel's autobiographies. Cambridge, UK : Science History Publications, 2003.

Hurwitz, Sue. Sally Ride : Shooting for the Stars. (Great Lives Series) Ballantine Books, 1989.

Mack, Pamela Etter. Women in Astronomy in the United States 1875-1920. BA thesis, Harvard University, 1977

McKenna-Lawlor, S. Whatever shines should be observed : quicquid nited notandum. Blackrock, Dublin : Samton Ltd. 1998. 136pp. (Portraits of five Irish women astronomers of the 19th century; Mary, Countess of Rose, The Hon. Mrs. Mary Ward, Agnes Mary Clerke, Ellen Mary Clerke, and Lady Margaret Lindsay Huggins.)

McMillan, Dorothy. ed. Queen of science, personal recollections of Mary Somerville Edinburgh: Canongate Classics, 2001. xlii + 434pp. [Ms. Somerville was more of a general scientist than an astronomer, but she did translate LaPlace's Mecanique Celeste]

Nolen, Stephanie. Promised the Moon: The Untold Story of the First Women in the Space Race. Penguin Books Canada, October 2002.

Philip, A.G. Davis, W.F. van Altena and A.R. Upgren, eds. Anni Mirabiles: a symposium celebrating the 90th birthday of Dorrit Hoffleit. Schenectady, N.Y. : L. Davis Press, 1999. 173 pp. (Includes an extensive bibliography of her work.)

Philip, A.G. Davis and Rebecca A. Koopman eds. The starry universe: the Cecelia Payne-Gaposchkin centenary Schenectady, N.Y. : L. Davis Press, 2001. 185 pp. (Proceedings of the conference.)

Ride, Sally. To Space and Back. HarperTrophy (Reprint edition), 1989)

Webb, Michael. Helen Sawyer Hogg: a lifetime of stargazing. Toronto : Copp Clark Pitman, 1991.

Woodmansee, Laura S. Women Astronauts. (Apogee Books Space Series) Apogee Books (Book and CD-ROM edition), 2002.

Woodmansee, Laura S. Women of Space: Cool Careers on the Final Frontier. Apogee Books (Book and CD-ROM edition), 2003.

Articles etc.

Brück, Mary T. "Women in astronomy, 1780-1940", Astronomy and Geophysics, 39 (December 1998), pp.6.4-6.5.

Chapman, Allan. "Now ladies as well as gentlemen", in The Victorian amateur astronomer: independent astronomical research in Britain 1820-1920. Chichester ; Toronto : John Wiley & Sons, 1998.

de la Lande, Jérôme Bibliographie Astronomique; avec l'Histoire de l'Astronomie depuis 1781 jusqu'à 1802_, pp. 585, 600, 687 & 704. [Talks about Madame du Pierry (Marie-Louise-Élisabeth-Félicité Pourat de la Madeleine) b. 1746, first women professor of Astronomy in Paris.]

Evans, Nancy Remage. "Physics individual profile- Nancy Remage Evans", Physics in Canada, 52 (March/April 1996) p.115

Kidwell, Peggy Aldrich. "Three women of American astronomy", American Scientist, 78 (May-June 1990), pp.244-251. [Maria Mitchell, Annie Jump Cannon, Cecelia Payne-Gaposchkin]

Morton, Donald. "ANNE BARBARA UNDERHILL (1920-2003)", Cassiopeia, 118 (September Equinox 2003).

or... http://www.casca.ca/ecass/issues/2003-se/

Orchiston, W., and Slee, B. "The Australasian discovery of solar radio emission," Anglo-Australian Observatory Newsletter, 101 (2002) [about Elizabeth Alexander's work].

Orchiston, W. "Radio waves from the Sun: the New Zealand connection," in Astronomical Handbook for 1995, edited by W. Orchiston, R. Dodd, and R. Hall. Wellington, Carter Observatory (The National Observatory of New Zealand). Pp. 65-69. [a more popular level account of Elizabeth Alexander's work].

Prentice, Alison. "The early history of women in university physics: a Toronto case study," Physics in Canada, 52 (March/April 1996) pp.94-96,100 [Mostly about women in physics at University of Toronto.]

Scnell, Annaliese. "First chances for women," in 100 years of observational astronomy and astrophysics : homage to Miklos Konkoly Thege 1842-1916, edited by Christiaan Sterken and John B. Hearnshaw. Brussels : C.Sterken, (2002?), pp.211-227. [Profiles several women and includes a bibliography.]

"Summary of the RAS Specialist Discussion Meeting on Women in Astronomy: an historical perspective, 1780-1940", The Observatory, 118 (October 1998), pp.270-273.

Tenn, Joseph S. "The Hugginses, the Drapers, and the Rise of Astrophysics," Griffith Observer, 50, 10, 2 (1986).

Part Four: Vera Rubin's Personal Selection

This list originally appeared in AAS Committee on the Status of Women weekly issues of 10/13/99 and is copied here with permission from Dr. Rubin.

There is now a vast collection of books which include scholarly discussions and biographies of women in astronomy. If you expand to Women in Science, the list multiplies. MUST reading are two books by Margaret Rossiter, Women Scientists in America: Struggles and Strategies to 1940 (the most informative), and Before Affirmative Action 1940-1972. Both Johns Hopkins Press, 1982 and 1995. Every women scientist should read at least the first, to learn why we are where we are. This is just a start. There are numerous colleges with Center for the Education of Women (e.g. U Mich.), which publish booklets, etc. I thank the DTM librarian, Shaun Hardy for putting together a reading list some years ago, for an exhibit on Women in Astronomy which we assembled in the DTM library; some entries come from that list.

The following is a very personal list of books in my office or home, which I cherish. Many can be found in used book stores; some are now rare.

Hypatia, or New Foes with an Old Face (Novel about Hypatia, the "first woman astronomer" 400AD and a classic), Charles Kingsley, A.L. Burt, New York; no date, but VERY old. My book has pages which are so brown that it is difficult to read now.

Memoir and Correspondence of Caroline Herschel, Mary Cornwallis Herschel, Appleton, New York, 1876. Very nice, probably hard to find. CH collected works are included at end of the collected works of William Herschel. Michael Hoskin's book, William Herschel, WW Norton, 1963, also includes Caroline. Also The Herschel Chronicle: The Life Story of Sir William Herschel and His Sister Caroline Herschel, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1933. Also Caroline Herschel's Contributions to Astronomy, Marilyn Bailey Ogilvie, Annals of Science 32, 1975, 149-161

Maria Mitchell, by Phebe Mitchell Kendall (Sister), Lee and Shepard, Boston 1896. About the best there is on MM, but bland. Her sister burned her letters.

Maria Mitchell, First Lady of American Astronomy, Helen L. Morgan, Westminster Press, Philadelphia 1977. A kiddie book, but factual.

Sweeper of the Sky (Novel about MM), Helen Wright, Macmillian 1949.

The Prolific Pen of Agnes Clerke, Kenneth Weitzenhoffer, Sky and Telescope 70, 1985, 211-212. Agnes Clerke wrote wonderful fairly technical books on the history of astronomy at the start of this century: Agnes Mary Clerke, Problems in Astrophysics, London: A.& C. Black, 1903; The System of the Stars, London: Adam and Charles Black, 1905; A Popular History of Astronomy during the Nineteenth Century, London: Adam and Charles Black, 1908

Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin: An Autobiography and other Recollections, Haramundanis, Katherine, ed. Cambridge UNive. Press, 1984. Wonderful stories by a brilliant writer. Interesting for her view of her life.

Woman in Science, H. J. Mozans, (1913), reprint 1974 MIT Press, introduction by Mildred Dresselhaus. Mozans, a priest, wrote the book under a pseudonym while on sabbatical from Notre Dame, believing that there had been women in science, but that their story had never been told. One chaprter is on women in Astronomy. Until the first Rossiter book, this is where we went to learn.

The Harvard College Observatory: The First Four Directorships 1839-1919, Bessie Zaban Jones and Lyle Gifford Boyd. Chapter XI: A Field for Women describes the women hired by Pickering for 1/4th the salary of the men.

Women Astronomers, Deborah Jean Warner, Natural History 88 (May 1979), 12-26. Much of what I know about women in astronomy I learned from Debbie Warner. This is a wonderful source.

And more, with no comments:

Maria Mitchell: Nineteenth Century Astronomer, Astronomy Quarterly 5, No. 19, 1986, 133-150

Dorothea Klumpke Roberts: A Forgotten Astronomer, Mercury 10, 1981, 139-140

Women Astronomers, 400 AD to 1750, Herman S. Davis, Popular Astronomy 6, 1898, 128-138 and 211-228

Three Women of American Astronomy (Mitchell, Cannon, Payne- Gaposchkin), Peggy Aldrich Kidwell, American Scientist 78, 1990, 244-251

Women Astronomers in Britain 1780-1930, Peggy Aldrich Kidwell, ISIS 75, 1984, 534-546

Gender and Science: Women in American Astronomy 1859-1940, John Lankford and Rickey L. Slavings, Physics Today 43, March 1990, 58-65

Early Daughters of Urania, P.V. Rizzo, Sky and Telescope 14, 1954, 7-10

Edward Hill, My Daughter Beatrice: A Personal Memoir of Dr. Beatrice Tinsley, Astronomer, New York:APS, 1986


Women in Astronomy, STScI workshop, September 1992, ed. C. Megan Urry, Laura Danly, Lisa E. Sherbert and Shireen Gonzaga. Good articles, statistics, and references.

Origins: The Lives and Worlds of Modern Cosmologists, Alan Lightman and Roberta Brawer, Harvard University Press, (approx. 1990; the book is at home). Includes interviews with Vera Rubin (p 285-305), Sandra Faber (324-340), and Margaret Geller (359-377)

The Outer Circle: Women in the Scientific Community, Harriet Zuckerman, Jonathan R. Cole, and John T. Bruer, (approx 1995), interview with Andrea Dupree p 94-126, plus other brief women astronomer mention.

In AIP Masters of Modern Physics series: Visit to a Small Universe, Virginia Trimble, 1992 Bright Galaxies, Dark Matters, Vera Rubin, 1997 These are collections of mostly non-technical writings, some about women in Astronomy. VT includes Beartice M. Tinsley, p 285-293; VR includes E. Margaret Burbidge, 190-192. Our views of being a woman in science are dissimilar.

Women's Work: For women in science, a fair shake is still elusive, Vera Rubin, in Science 86, 1986, 58-65. This account of women in astronomy ends with the following: "A cable that was sent to me in 1978 is a testament to [women astronomers]. "Dear Madame" it reads, "You might appreciate hearing that four women astronomers are observing on Cerro Tololo tonight, on the four largest telescopes! We are M. H. Ulrich, M. T. Ruiz, P. Lugger, and L. Schweizer." I hope the sky was very clear that night."

[Dr. Rubin also mentioned some websites which are already included elsewhere.]

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